Sunday, May 26, 2024

Memorial Day: A Day of Remembrance. Does Grilled Meat Cause Cancer? Avoiding Cooked Meat Carcinogens.


Memorial Day: A Day of Remembrance

 Memorial Day: A Day of Remembrance“Memorial Day helps us remember those who have died in war. It can also help us long for the day when true peace will come to this war-torn world.

On Memorial Day Americans will honor those who died fighting in the many wars that have marked this nation’s nearly 248-year history. Flowers will be placed on the graves of the dead, and ceremonies will take place around the country to honor those who gave their lives in defense of this country.

Prayers will also be offered up for the safety of those actively serving in harm’s way.

As we honor those who sacrificed their lives in war, we might ask ourselves, will war or the threat of war always be with us?

A brief history of Memorial Day

Memorial Day was proclaimed in 1868 (three years after the Civil War) by General John Logan and was first observed on May 30 of that year when flowers were placed on the graves of Union and Confederate soldiers at Arlington National Cemetery. More Americans were killed fighting the Civil War than both world wars combined.

After World War I the holiday was changed to honor Americans who died fighting in any war. It is now celebrated on the last Monday in May.

Most have deep respect for the young men and women who willingly laid their lives on the line for the security of their families and country.

Sometimes in today’s ungodly world, it seems that there is no alternative to war.

The terrible toll of war

Though war is glorified in movies and video games, in reality it exacts a terrible toll on nations as well as individuals.

An age is coming when mankind will learn to live at peace with one another  Marriage and family life are disrupted when a soldier has to leave for months at a time. Fathers and mothers are often deprived of the joy of being with their children in the most formative years of their lives.

Bodies and minds are often scarred beyond repair by the carnage of war. Parents’ and grandparents’ hearts are torn apart by news of the sudden and tragic ending of the lives of their children and grandchildren in some far-off place.

To learn why wars occur, read “Why Does God Allow War?

Neither shall they learn war anymore

Thankfully, an age is coming when mankind will learn to live at peace with one another; when the disputes between nations will not be resolved on the battlefield, but by a just and righteous world government led by Jesus Christ, the King of Kings.

The Bible speaks of a future time following the return of Jesus Christ when there will no longer be a need for war colleges or warfare.

The World To Come Booklet“Now it shall come to pass in the latter days that the mountain of the LORD’s house shall be established on the top of the mountains, and shall be exalted above the hills; and peoples shall flow to it. Many nations shall come and say, ‘Come, and let us go up to the mountain of the LORD, to the house of the God of Jacob; He will teach us His ways, and we shall walk in His paths.’ For out of Zion the law shall go forth, and the word of the LORD from Jerusalem.

“He shall judge between many peoples, and rebuke strong nations afar off; they shall beat their swords into plowshares, and their spears into pruning hooks; nation shall not lift up sword against nation, neither shall they learn war anymore. But everyone shall sit under his vine and under his fig tree, and no one shall make them afraid; for the mouth of the LORD of hosts has spoken” (Micah 4:1-4).

The Bible also shows that the millions of young men and women who have died in wars down through the centuries will rise and live again. Their story is not over! (To learn more, read “What Are the Resurrections?”).

There are no greater truths to focus on during Memorial Day than the coming peace of the Kingdom of God and the resurrection of all those who have died through the ages!”

Watch this video presentation to learn more about the biblical hope of a better world to come at:


Memorial Day: Reflections on War

“In the United States, every year in late May is the national holiday of Memorial Day. 

For many people, I suppose it is just another three-day weekend with time for outdoor activities, family gatherings and backyard barbecues.  

But the origins of this holiday are more sobering and are worth pausing to consider. 

The origins go back to the time immediately following the American Civil War (1861 to 1865) and the desire to commemorate those who died in the war.  

With American fighting American, the toll on the young nation was tremendous—over 600,000 dead before it was all over.

There were several key battles of the Civil War that were fought near where I live in Arkansas, including the Battle of Dripping Springs, the Battle of Pea Ridge and the Battle of Prairie Grove. And up around Springfield, Missouri, was the Battle of Wilson’s Creek.  

There is a small, rather old cemetery in the middle of a pasture across the road from our house.  

Some of the headstones that can still be read date back to the late 1700s, and there are a number marking the graves of young men who died in the mid 1860s—very likely killed in what is sometimes called the War Between the States.  

The observance of Memorial Day began in the mid 1860s in honor of the soldiers who died on both sides of the war. And over the years the holiday was expanded to include those who died in every war the U.S. has become involved with since.  

When I was a boy, most of my relatives called it Decoration Day, and I remember quite a few years when we spent much of the day driving from cemetery to cemetery, placing flowers on the graves of family members—not just soldiers, but all family members.

It is sobering to consider the history all around where I am privileged to live. 

From the cemetery across the road, to the sites of the battles that raged, I am reminded of the lives that were ended here. Each of those young men probably believed he was fighting for a just cause.  

And the military history of the United States is not unique. War, destruction, hatred and death have been ever-present and dominant themes throughout all human history. 

So much history, so much suffering, misery, waste and death. So many hopes and dreams destroyed; so many lives shattered. 

There is no way to know or even begin to count how many tears were shed so long ago over every one of those graves.  

It reminds me of a passage of scripture I’ve read at every funeral I’ve ever conducted.  

In speaking of the hope of the wonderful future that will come to pass, the apostle John recorded: “Behold, the tabernacle of God is with men, and He will dwell with them, and they shall be His people. God Himself will be with them and be their God. And God will wipe away every tear from their eyes; there shall be no more death, nor sorrow, nor crying. There shall be no more pain, for the former things have passed away” (Revelation 21:3-4).  

Bible prophecy is very clear that wars will continue up until the return of Jesus Christ to earth. In fact, Christ Himself warned that wars will become so intense that if the Father would not send Him back to earth when He will, all human life would be destroyed (Matthew 24:22). (Read more about how peace will come in our online article “How World Peace Will Come.”) 

Considering our human history of war and suffering should motivate us to pray more earnestly for the circumstances where we can live our faith in peace (1 Timothy 2:1-2). 

But we also have the hope of a future where our Creator will once and for all “wipe away every tear.” 

Kind regards, and have a great rest of your week,

Tom Clark, for Life, Hope & Truth


Does Grilled Meat Cause Cancer?

“Studies have found that eating grilled meat or chicken may increase your risk of developing cancer.23

The problem comes down to carcinogens, cancer-causing substances which may be formed as part of the grilling process. The amino acids, sugars, and creatine in meats react at high temperatures forming heterocyclic amines.

Heterocyclic amines (HAs) are human carcinogens found on any meat cooked at high temperatures, whether on a grill or in a pan or under the broiler. The grilling is part of the problem, but the other is simply the heat. Pan-frying meats at high temperatures (over 300 F) also increases cancer risk.4

A group of chemicals called polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are also linked to cancer.5 PAHs form when the meat juices drip onto the coals or other heating surfaces and flare up in flames and smoke. They stick to meat and are only found on grilled or smoked meat.6

HAs and PAHs are mutagenic—they cause changes in the DNA of cells in the laboratory that could lead to cells becoming cancerous. The most important factor in PAH production appears to be the incomplete combustion of fats that drip on the grill.7

We don't have any direct studies on humans which show that HAs and PAHs cause cancer, but animal studies have found an increased risk of cancer in exposed animals.5 Population studies on people, in turn, have found an increased risk of some cancers in people who eat larger quantities of grilled and well-done meats.3

While most studies have focused on grilled meat and the incidence of cancer, a 2017 study found that women with breast cancer had lower survival rates if they consumed greater amounts of grilled, barbecued, or smoked meats.8

Limit Processed Meats

As for the hot dogs, you may want to take a pass. We know that, of all meats, processed meats likely confer the most cancer risk.13

Since you will already be limiting both the frequency and portion size of the meats you eat, it might be best to save those portions for cuts of non-processed meats you can genuinely savor, such as a good (but marinated) steak.


We know that high cooking temperatures and smoke put mutagenic chemicals into and onto the meat. Yet, there are several measures you can take to reduce the number of heterocyclic amines and other carcinogens in the meat you eat. These measures include marinating meat, cooking at lower temperatures, raising the grill rack, and more.

A Word From Verywell

Keep in mind that just like everything in life, moderation is key. You still can enjoy grilled meats, but just do so in moderation and when cooked at low temperatures. That said, women who have had breast cancer may want to limit the amount of grilled, barbecued, and smoked meats they consume, even if they take the measures above to reduce carcinogens.

Can eating too much grilled food cause cancer?
Yes, there is an increased risk of cancer from eating an excessive amount of grilled meat. This is due to heterocyclic amines (HAs) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). These substances are carcinogens (cause cancer) formed as part of the grilling process.”  From:


Avoiding Cooked Meat Carcinogens

Image Credit: rhodes / Flickr. This image has been modified.

“When the muscles of mammals, fish, or birds are cooked at high temperatures carcinogenic chemicals called heterocyclic amines are created that may increase the risk of breast, colon, lung, pancreatic, and prostate cancer (see my last post Estrogens in Cooked Meat). Risky cooking methods don’t just include barbequing, frying, and grilling. Even just baking chicken at around 350o F for 15 minutes leads to significant production of these cancer-causing compounds.

In my video Estrogenic Cooked Meat Carcinogens I showed that these cooked meat carcinogens may stimulate breast cancer cell growth nearly as much as pure estrogen. In PhIP: The Three Strikes Breast Carcinogen I showed that these chemicals may promote breast cancer invasiveness even more than estrogen.

How do you decrease your exposure to these chemicals? As you can see in my 3-min. video Reducing Cancer Risk in Meateaters, fried bacon and fish are the worst, though skinless chicken breast might lead to the greatest exposure given its popularity.  If there are carcinogens in roasted chicken, what about roasted coffee? See Coffee and Cancer.

Women who consume meat very well done, appear to be at nearly 5 times higher risk for breast cancer compared to women who consumed their meats rare or medium done. This, however, raises the so-called “paradox” of preparing meat noted by the Harvard Health Letter. Well-cooked and you risk cancer; undercooked and you risk E. coli food poisoning.

Eating boiled meat—not broiled, but boiled in water—is probably the safest. Studies show if you eat meat that never goes above 212 degrees Fahrenheit, both your urine and feces damage DNA significantly less than if you eat meat dry cooked at higher temperatures.  A similar study where they compared the excretion of carcinogens formed in processed meats can be found in Prevention Is Better Than Cured Meat.

PhIP is also found in cigarette smoke, diesel fumes, and incinerator ash, but because the highest levels in food are found in common meats, toxicologists lament “Exposure to PhIP is difficult to avoid because of its presence in many commonly consumed cooked meats, particularly chicken, beef and fish.”  But if you’re able to somehow dodge those meats (and don’t suck on a cigarette, tailpipe, or incinerator smokestack) maybe it’s not so difficult to avoid after all.

The levels of heterocyclic amines flowing through one’s body may drop to zero after refraining from eating meat for just 24 hours. If you practice Meatless Mondays, by Tuesday, morning urine levels of PhIP and MeIQx—one the most potent mutagens ever tested—become undetectable. There are, however, ways even vegetarians may be exposed: cigarette smoke, eggs, cheese, and the popular sports supplement creatine. See my 4-min video Heterocyclic Amines in Eggs, Cheese, and Creatine? for details.

Caution may also be necessary with athletic protein supplementation. See Heavy Metals in Protein Powder Supplements. In general, Some Dietary Supplements May Be More Than a Waste of Money.

Heterocyclic amines are not the only class of meat carcinogens also found in cigarette smoke. See my video When Nitrites Go Bad. While the body can detox itself of both nitrosamines and these cooked meat chemicals within hours or days, some pollutants found in meat can persist in the body. See How Fast Can Children Detoxify from PCBs?”  From:


Tuesday, May 21, 2024

How to Have a Happy Marriage. The Pros of Garlic Powder for Heart Disease.


How to Have a Happy Marriage

“Whether you are considering marriage or are already married, you likely have questions about how to deal with the challenges and build a happy marriage.

Over 200 years ago George Washington wrote a letter to a friend saying: “I have always considered marriage as the most interesting event of one’s life, the foundation of happiness or misery.”

It seems the experience of all the intervening generations has not changed this assessment very much.

There are many differing ideas today about what marriage should be. But regardless of one’s approach, marriage always involves blending two different personalities, with unique experiences, biases and visions for the future, into one unit.

Having two people so intimately intertwined in each other’s lives is challenging by itself. But when the pressures of career, finances, children, aging parents and more are added to the mix, marriage can become a very challenging relationship!

With marriages today failing at an alarming rate, some might ask if there is any hope for the modern marriage! If you are contemplating marriage, are there things you should consider to give your future marriage the best chance of success? If you are married, but your marriage is struggling, can it be saved? If your marriage is solid, can it be improved and strengthened?

These topics and more are addressed in this section. It is our sincere desire to help strengthen marriages, and it is in that desire that we invite you to read and study the advice that is freely presented here.

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Topics On How to Have a Happy Marriage

The Pros of Garlic Powder for Heart Disease 


“See what a penny a day’s worth of garlic powder can do.

In ancient Greece, “the Art of Medicine was divided into three parts”: cures through diet, cures through drugs, and cures through surgery. Garlic, Hippocrates wrote, was one such medicinal food, but that was to treat a nonexistent entity called “displacement of the womb,” so ancient wisdom can only go so far.

Those who eat more than a clove of garlic a day do seem to have better artery function than those who eat less than that, but you don’t know if it’s cause-and-effect until you put it to the test.

As I discuss in my video Benefits of Garlic Powder for Heart Disease, heart disease patients were randomized to receive either garlic powder or placebo tablets two times a day for three months. Those lucky enough to be in the garlic group got a significant boost in their artery function—a 50 percent increase in function from taking only 800 mg of garlic powder a day. That’s just a quarter teaspoon of garlic powder. A 50 percent increase in artery function for less than a penny daily!

If regular, plain old garlic powder can do that, what about those fancy Kyolic® aged garlic extract supplements? They can be 30 times more expensive and don’t work at all. After four weeks, there was zero significant improvement. It’s hard to improve on Mother Nature.

Garlic powder can improve the function of our arteries, but what about the structure of our arteries? Dozens of studies on garlic all compiled together show that garlic can reduce cholesterol levels in the blood by more than 16 points. So, might garlic powder actually be able to slow the progression of atherosclerosis? Researchers studied a garlic powder tablet versus a placebo for three months. As you can see below and at 1:42 in my video, the placebo group got worse, which is what tends to happen. Eat the same artery-clogging diet, and your arteries continue to clog. However, the progression of the disease appeared to slow and even stall in the garlic group.

Of course, it would be nice to see the thickening of the artery wall reverse, but, for that, one might have to add more plants than just garlic to one’s diet. Still, though, that same quarter teaspoon of a simple spice available everywhere may be considered as an adjunct treatment for atherosclerosis, the number one killer of both men and women in the United States and around much of the world.

What about garlic for high blood pressure? A systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials “demonstrated that garlic has a statistically significant and clinically meaningful effect” on both systolic and diastolic blood pressures, reducing the top number by nearly seven and the bottom number by about five. That may not sound like a lot, but reducing diastolic blood pressure (the bottom number) by five points can reduce the risk of stroke by about a third and heart disease by 25 percent, as you can see in the graph below and at 2:38 in my video.

“Plant-based medicine provides beneļ¬cial effects, alongside with only minimal or no complications”—that is, little or no side effects—“and compared to other medicine are relatively cost-effective.” I’d say so, at as little as a penny per day.

What else can garlic do? See related posts below.

Here’s a tasty, garlicky recipe from The How Not to Die Cookbook: Garlic Caesar Salad Dressing.

Of course, the best way to treat heart disease is to simply get rid of it by treating the underlying cause. See How Not to Die from Heart Disease.

Key Takeaways
  • In ancient Greece, garlic was recognized as a medicinal food.

  • Researchers found that daily consumption of 800 mg of garlic powder (equivalent to a quarter teaspoon for less than a penny a day) significantly improved artery function of heart disease patients by 50 percent.

  • While plain garlic powder demonstrated significant improvements in artery function, expensive aged garlic extract (Kyolic®) supplements showed no significant improvement after four weeks.

  • Dozens of studies compiled together show that garlic can reduce blood cholesterol levels by more than 16 points, and the potential of garlic powder to slow the progression of atherosclerosis, the thickening of artery walls associated with heart disease, was demonstrated in a three-month study.

  • A daily supplement of a quarter teaspoon of garlic powder may be considered as an adjunct treatment for atherosclerosis, the leading cause of death globally.

  • A systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials found that garlic has a statistically significant and clinically meaningful effect on both systolic and diastolic blood pressures, helping to reduce risks of stroke and heart disease.


Sunday, May 12, 2024

God’s Harvest Festivals. Hurrying to Be at Jerusalem for Pentecost. How Did Doctors Not Know About the Risks of Hormone Therapy?



Happy Mother’s Day to all those so ordained!!


God’s Harvest Festivals

Exodus 23:14-16

“Three times you shall keep a feast to Me in the year: You shall keep the Feast of Unleavened Bread (you shall eat unleavened bread seven days, as I commanded you, at the time appointed in the month of Abib, for in it you came out of Egypt; none shall appear before Me empty); and the Feast of Harvest, the firstfruits of your labors which you have sown in the field; and the Feast of Ingathering at the end of the year, when you have gathered in the fruit of your labors from the field.”

God’s seven annual festivals listed in Leviticus 23 are several times grouped together as three main festival seasons of the year.

  • Passover and the Feast of Unleavened Bread fall in an eight-day period in the spring.
  • The Feast of Harvest, called Pentecost in the New Testament, falls in late spring or early summer.
  • And the Feast of Ingathering, better known as the Feast of Tabernacles, comes in the fall, along with the Feast of Trumpets, the Day of Atonement and the Eighth Day/Last Great Day.

For an overview of God’s festivals and God’s plan of salvation, see “Festival Meaning: What Are the Meanings of Each of God’s Festivals?”         From:


Hurrying to Be at Jerusalem for Pentecost

Acts 20:16

“For Paul had decided to sail past Ephesus, so that he would not have to spend time in Asia; for he was hurrying to be at Jerusalem, if possible, on the Day of Pentecost.

Listen to the "Verse by Verse" episode covering this scripture.

The apostle Paul planned his travel around God’s annual festivals. He spent the Passover and Days of Unleavened Bread that year in Philippi (Acts 20:6). Because of a plot on his life, he traveled overland instead of by sea (verse 3). But verse 16 shows that he was still determined to get back to Jerusalem in time for the Feast of Pentecost.

For an overview of God’s annual festivals, see “The Seven Feasts of the Lord.”

For more about Pentecost, see “Pentecost: God Gives the Holy Spirit” and “The Sermon That Launched the Church.” From:


Paul Continues to Celebrate Pentecost

1 Corinthians 16:8

“But I will tarry in Ephesus until Pentecost.

Listen to the "Verse by Verse" episode covering this scripture.

“The apostle Paul’s first letter to the Corinthians was written perhaps 25 years after the New Testament Church of God was founded on the Day of Pentecost in A.D. 31. His note to the Corinthians in this passage shows that Paul and the Church continued to celebrate Pentecost, also called “the Feast of Weeks, of the firstfruits of wheat harvest” (Exodus 34:22) and other names in the Old Testament.

The New Testament record shows that the New Testament Church continued to observe all seven of God’s festivals. For example, earlier in 1 Corinthians Paul also mentioned the Passover and the need to “keep the feast, not with old leaven,” referring to the Feast of Unleavened Bread (1 Corinthians 5:7-8).”

For more about Pentecost, see “Pentecost: God Gives the Holy Spirit”  From:


“I Must by All Means Keep This Coming Feast”

Acts 18:21

[Paul] took leave of them, saying, “I must by all means keep this coming feast in Jerusalem; but I will return again to you, God willing.” And he sailed from Ephesus.

“As we saw in Acts 20:16, the apostle Paul planned his journeys around the biblical festivals. Here in Acts 18:21 he also explains his need to get to Jerusalem for one of the festivals.

Though it is not explicit about which festival, this passage gives more evidence of the continued importance of God’s festivals to the New Testament Church.

For more about the biblical festivals, see the second half of the free booklet From Holidays to Holy Days: God’s Plan for You.”       From:


How Did Doctors Not Know About the Risks of Hormone Therapy?

Transcript of the video at:

Below is an approximation of this video’s audio content. To see any graphs, charts, graphics, images, and quotes to which Dr. Greger may be referring, watch the above video.

“Women were placed in harm’s way by their physicians, who acted as unsuspecting patsies for the drug companies.

We’ve known about the role of estrogen in breast cancer going back to the 1800s, when in some cases, surgical removal of the ovaries seemed to help. Ovaries were said to send out mysterious influences to the rest of the body, which, in 1923, we identified as estrogen. The medical profession jumped on this discovery, and started injecting menopausal women by the thousands—shots that gave a respectable hook on which to hang visits to the doctor. Soon, there were pills, and patches, and medical journals—like the Journal of the American Medical Associationregaled doctors with ads on how they can “help women to happiness” by prescribing estrogen. You could turn this into that. “For when women outlive their ovaries,” there was Premarin.

As far back as the 40s, concerns were raised that this practice might cause breast cancer, noting it would have been nice to figure this out first, before we started dosing women en masse. But breast cancer risk didn’t matter, because heart disease is the #1 killer of women, concluded reviews, and because women taking hormones appeared to have lower heart attack rates that would outweigh the extra breast cancer.

But, women taking estrogen tended to be of higher socioeconomic class, tended to exercise more, and engage in other healthy lifestyle changes, like increased fiber intake and getting their cholesterol checked. So, maybe that’s why women taking estrogens appeared to be protected from heart disease. Maybe it had nothing to do with the drugs themselves. Despite the medical profession’s enthusiasm for the stuff, only a randomized clinical trial could really resolve this question—you split women into two groups; half get the hormones; half get a placebo, and you follow them out for a few years. But, there was no such study, until the 1990s, when the Women’s Health Initiative study was designed.

Wait a second. Why did it take the bulk of a century to decide to definitively study the safety of something they prescribed to millions of women? Maybe it’s because there had never been a female director of the National Institutes of Health until then. Just three weeks after being named NIH Director, she went before Congress to announce, “We need a moonwalk for women.” And, that “moonwalk” took the form of the Women’s Health Initiative study.

The bombshell landed. Summer, 2002. There was so much more invasive breast cancer in the hormone users that they were forced to stop the study prematurely. Yeah, but what about heart disease? Wasn’t that supposed to balance things out? The women didn’t just have more breast cancer; they had more heart attacks, more strokes, more blood clots to their lungs.

The news that women treated with hormone replacement therapy experienced higher rates of breast cancer, cardiovascular disease, and overall harm rocked women and physicians across the country. Estrogen started out as the most prescribed drug in America before the study, but the number of prescriptions dropped immediately, and, within a year, so did the incidence of breast cancer in the United States. Here’s the data from California; a nice drop-off in the rate of invasive breast cancer.

But the most important part of this story was why were we all so surprised? There had been decade after decade of repeated warnings about the risks of cancer. In fact, the reason breast cancer patients had so much trouble suing the drug company was that the drugs contained warning labels for decades. And, having disclosed it, surely, any reasonable physician would have included it in their risk and benefit discussion with their patients. It’s like the warning labels on packs of cigarettes. If you get lung cancer, now, you should have known better. And so, if you got breast cancer, don’t blame the drug company. They warned you about the risks, right there, clear as day.

Why didn’t more doctors warn their patients? Even after the study came out, millions of prescriptions continued to be dispensed. That’s a lot of cancer in our patients we caused, wrote one doctor. How long will it take us to stop listening to the drug companies, “admit that we are harming many of our patients, and…start changing our prescription habits?” Why did this practice continue in the face of mounting evidence of harm?

Well, it is a multibillion dollar industry. Despite an overwhelming amount of evidence to the contrary, many physicians still believe that estrogenic hormones have overall health benefits, a non-evidence-based perception that may be the result of decades of carefully orchestrated corporate influence on the medical literature. Dozens of ghostwritten reviews were published in medical journals to promote unproven benefits, and downplay the harms of menopausal hormone therapy. They’d pay PR companies to write the articles, and then pass them off as written by some expert.

So, “gynecologists must switch allegiance from eminence-based to evidence-based medicine”— consider what the science actually says, and not just what some so-called expert says. One might say the “current culture of gynecology encourages the dissemination of health advice based on advertising, rather than science. Women were placed in the way of harm by their physicians, who acted as unsuspecting patsies for the pharmaceutical companies.”

If we really wanted to prevent heart attacks in women, simple lifestyle behaviors can eliminate more than 90% of heart attack risk. So—instead of being Big Pharma’s pawns—recommending a healthful diet, increased exercise, and smoking cessation would truly benefit women’s health.”  From: